Check Valve Failure Caused SpaceX Anomaly

SpaceX provided an update today on its investigation into the cause of the “anomaly” during a static fire test of its Crew Dragon In-Flight Abort system in April that destroyed the spacecraft.  A leak allowed liquid oxidizer to enter high-pressure helium tubes during ground processing.  Milliseconds before the eight SuperDraco engines were to be fired, a slug of the oxidizer was driven through a check valve, causing the valve to ignite and cause an explosion.  The company still has work to do and could not project a revised schedule for the In-Flight Abort test, a prerequisite for launching astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS).

Read more at: Spacepolicy online

First Moon-Bound Orion Crew Capsule Declared Complete, Major Tests Remain

Teams working at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida last week connected a U.S.-built Orion crew module with its European-made power and propulsion element for the first time, a significant accomplishment ahead of the spacecraft’s shipment to Ohio this fall for testing inside the world’s largest vacuum chamber.

The connection of the Orion spacecraft’s two main elements is a major milestone as engineers ready the vehicle for an unpiloted test flight to lunar orbit and back to Earth, a precursor to a follow-on mission that will carry astronauts back to the vicinity of the moon for the first time since 1972.

Read more at: Spaceflight Now

Lack Of Transparency May Put Commercial Space Program At Risk

American astronauts are finally scheduled to return to Earth orbit in an American spacecraft on an American rocket from American soil this year for the first time since the Space Shuttle’s last flight in 2011. It is especially meaningful that American astronauts will return to space in a commercially built spacecraft. We are witnessing the birth of private space travel in a new era when pioneering entrepreneurs will open frontiers of discovery alongside NASA’s deep space missions.

Private human space travel promises extraordinary opportunities for scientific discoveries and for harvesting the solar system’s vast resources for fuel, water, energy and deep space manufacturing.

Read more at: Hill

SpaceX’s New Test Rocket Briefly Hovers During First Free Flight

Late on Thursday, July 25th, SpaceX launched a test version of its next big rocket from Texas, sending the vehicle hovering in the air for a few seconds before it landed back on the ground. The hardware didn’t get very high, but it was the first time the test vehicle flew detached from the ground, powered by SpaceX’s next-generation rocket engine.

The vehicle is a test prototype of SpaceX’s future, Starship rocket. Starship is the company’s most ambitious vehicle concept yet: it’s a fully reusable design intended to send cargo and people to deep space destinations like the Moon and Mars. Similar to SpaceX’s Falcon 9 rockets, Starship is supposed to land upright — on Earth or on distant worlds — and then be able to take off again.

Read more at: Verge

A Huge Fireball Briefly Swallowed Spacex’s Mars Rocket Prototype, But Elon Musk Says There Is ‘No Major Damage’

SpaceX filled the South Texas air with the roar of a Raptor engine on Tuesday night. However, Elon Musk’s rocket company also set off a fireball that briefly engulfed the rocket ship that the engine was attached to.

The rocket, called Starhopper, is a squat, six-story prototype of a larger interplanetary launch system known as Starship that’s being designed to take people to and from Mars. That system (and its prototypes) will use a new rocket engine called Raptor.

Tuesday’s test-firing was meant to set the stage for Starhopper’s first big “hop and hover” launch, which was scheduled for Wednesday. But that launch has now been delayed.

Read more at: Business insider

Could You Survive A Trip To Mars?

At a recent public lecture, Dr Emma Tucker posed a question to the audience: who would like to travel to space? Almost everyone raised their hand. But would they still be so keen once they knew the possible health risks?

I often wonder what it would be like to travel to Mars. When I do, I think about the logistics involved.

How long will it take? Will I fly past the moon? Can I expect a bumpy landing? And more importantly: How will I get home?

Read more at: ANU Science

New Docking Port, Spacesuit And Supplies En Route To Space Station

A break in thunderstorms streaming across Central Florida allowed a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon cargo capsule to blast off Thursday from Cape Canaveral in pursuit of the International Space Station with a new docking mechanism, a spacesuit and 40 mice acting as high-flying research specimens.

Flying off Cape Canaveral’s Complex 40 launch pad with 1.7 million pounds of thrust, the Falcon 9 rocket turned to the northeast and soared into space over the Atlantic Ocean.

Liftoff occurred at 6:01:56 p.m. EDT (2201:56 GMT) Thursday on the the 73rd flight of a Falcon 9 rocket since SpaceX’s workhorse launcher debuted in June 2010.

Read more at: Spaceflight now

Pakistan Aims To Send First Astronaut Into Space By 2022

Pakistan said on Thursday it aims to send its first astronaut into space by 2022 and will begin selecting candidates next year.

Neighbour and long-time rival India put its first astronaut into space in 1984 as part of a Soviet-led mission. It launched a rocket into space on Monday in an attempt to safely land a rover on the moon, its most ambitious mission yet.

Pakistan’s program, announced 50 years after the U.S. Apollo 11 mission put the first man on the moon, marks a new departure after focusing on developing communication satellites.

Read more at: Reuters

These 6 Accidents Nearly Derailed Apollo 11’s Mission to the Moon

The Apollo 11 mission to the moon was one of humanity’s most incredible feats, but it almost didn’t happen. It was nearly derailed by a catastrophe, and several heart-racing moments during the mission could have ended it prematurely.

Other accidents that took place during the 1969 mission could have even doomed the astronauts. (In case that happened, President Richard Nixon had a speech at the ready to deliver to the nation.)

Here are six accidents that almost thwarted Apollo 11’s lunar mission. But, thanks to NASA’s drive, ingenuity and planning, none of these calamities stopped the astronauts from making it to the moon, and making history.

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NASA Taps Northrop Grumman In Sole-Source Agreement To Build Gateway Habitat

Racing against the clock to meet the Trump administration’s 2024 deadline to land astronauts on the moon, NASA plans to select Northrop Grumman to build a pressurized habitation module derived from the company’s Cygnus cargo craft for living quarters for crews transiting to and from the lunar surface.

The Northrop Grumman habitation module could be ready for launch in December 2023, and other companies under consideration for the work could not demonstrate they would be ready to launch a habitat into deep space in time for a 2024 lunar landing mission under NASA’s Artemis program.

NASA is also bypassing a traditional procurement process for the Minimal Habitation Module. Rather than requesting bids from industry, and then evaluating the responses, NASA plans to fast-track a contract with Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems, an operating unit of Northrop Grumman formerly known as Orbital ATK.

Read more at: Spaceflight Now

Indian Astronauts May Come To Russia For Training In Late 2019-2020

Indian astronauts may come to Russia to train for the first national manned mission at the end of this year or next year, Russian Deputy Prime Minister and Co-chair of the Russian-Indian intergovernmental commission for commercial and economic, scientific and technical, and cultural cooperation Yury Borisov said.

“We responded enthusiastically to the Indian side’s request to help perform the launch of an Indian astronaut by 2022. A relevant agreement has been signed and work has been organized. The Indian side is really glad and expressed satisfaction with the way this work was organized,” Borisov said following a meeting with the Indian co-chair of the intergovernmental commission, Indian Foreign Minister Subrahmanyam Jaishankar, in New Delhi on Monday.

Read more at: Interfax

Ariane 5 Launch Delayed In Aftermath Of Vega Failure

The next flight of an Ariane 5 rocket, previously set for next week, has been delayed to no earlier than July 30 to review the readiness components it has in common with the Vega rocket after a launch failure earlier this month.

Two officials familiar with the launch planning said investigators probing the July 10 failure of a light-class Vega rocket minutes after liftoff from French Guiana want to ensure parts on the larger Ariane 5 rocket are ready to fly.

The solid-fueled Vega rocket’s climb into orbit from the Guiana Space Center on July 10 went awry around two minutes after liftoff, moments after the planned ignition of the Vega’s Zefiro 23 second stage motor.

Read more at: Spaceflight Now

Virgin Orbit In Launch Deal With UK’s Royal Air Force

Virgin Orbit says it has been selected by the United Kingdom’s Royal Air Force to provide launches of small satellites on short notice.

The Long Beach, California, company announced Friday that the first launch for the ARTEMIS program could come as soon as 2020.

Virgin Orbit is developing an air-launch system in which a rocket carried aloft under the wing of a special Boeing 747-400 is released then fires its engine to insert payloads into orbit.

Read more at: ABC News

Exercise In Space Keeps Astronauts From Fainting When They Return To Earth, Study Says

The lack of gravity astronauts encounter during spaceflight makes returning to the force of Earth’s gravity a little disorienting. And when they return to Earth, they faint.

A new study published Friday in Circulation, the American Heart Association’s journal, has identified a way to avoid that.

Surgeons assigned to some of the first astronauts to go into space during NASA’s Mercury program noticed very few changes when they monitored heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature.

Read more at: CNN

Europe’s Weeklong Satellite Outage Is Over—But Still Serves As A Warning

EUROPE’S GALILEO SATELLITE navigation system largely regained service Thursday, a full week after a mass outage began on July 11. The European Global Navigation Satellite Systems Agency, known as GSA, said that commercial users would start to see coverage returning, but that there might be “fluctuations” in the system. What remains unclear is what exactly caused the downtime—and why it persisted for so long.

The incident took down all of the GPS-like system’s timing and navigation features other than “Search and Rescue,” which helps locate people in remote areas.

Read more at: Wired

A Jumbo-Jet-Size Asteroid Just Zipped Safely by Earth

An asteroid the size of a jumbo jet flew by Earth Wednesday (July 24) at a distance closer than the moon is to our planet.

The massive space rock was about 222,000 miles (357,000 kilometers) from Earth when it made its closest approach, at 9:31 a.m. EDT (1331 GMT), according to NASA’s Center for Near Earth Object Studies. (On average, the distance between the moon and Earth is 239,000 miles, or 385,000 km.)

The asteroid, called 2019 OD, is between 184 and 394 feet (56 to 120 meters) in diameter, according to NASA. It was discovered just two days before its close approach to Earth but posed no threat to our planet.

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Fireball! Incredible Video Shows Meteor Streaking Across Canadian Sky

A fireball as bright as the full moon streaked across the Canadian province of Ontario early Wednesday (July 24), possibly throwing meteorites to Earth along the way.

The flash of light from a beachball-size space rock was recorded by 10 all-sky cameras deployed by Western University in London, Canada, and mounted across southern Ontario and Quebec. While meteorites could have fallen in the Bancroft area (about 3.5 hours northeast of Toronto), footage was captured as far away as Montreal — about 260 miles (420 kilometers) east of Bancroft.

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Chinese Space Station Testbed Ends Mission With Controlled Re-Entry

A prototype space lab module for China’s planned space station re-entered the atmosphere over the South Pacific Ocean Friday to end a nearly three-year mission that included a visit from Chinese astronauts and an in-orbit refueling demonstration.

The 34.1-foot-long (10.4-meter) Tiangong 2 module plunged into Earth’s atmosphere at 1306 GMT (9:06 a.m. EDT) Friday and burned up as intended. Debris from the spacecraft fell in a remote zone of the South Pacific Ocean between New Zealand and Chile.

Chinese officials guided the Tiangong 2 spacecraft for a targeted re-entry after the module’s predecessor, Tiangong 1, fell out of orbit in an uncontrolled manner last year, raising concerns about falling space junk.

Read more at: Spaceflight Now

Space Debris Is A Concern: Ex-Isro Chief Radhakrishnan

Former chairman of Space Commission and Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) K Radhakrishnan on Friday said that space debris is a concern of all nations and there is a need to have the ability to track them. Radhakrishnan was delivering the foundation day lecture of Shri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara Institute for Management Development (SDM IMD), here. He said that at present, 1,450 satellites are operational and 23,000 small parts, debris, are around.

Read more at: Deccan herald

FAA To Extend Comment Period Again For Revised Launch Licensing Rules

The Federal Aviation Administration plans to further extend the public comment period for a proposed revision of commercial launch and reentry regulations that’s faced significant industry criticism.

In a panel discussion at the Space Frontier Foundation’s NewSpace 2019 conference here July 16, Kelvin Coleman, deputy associate administrator for commercial space transportation at the FAA, said the agency would soon announce it was extending the deadline for submitting comments on the proposed regulations by 20 days.

Read more at: Spacenews

I-Space Becomes China’s First Private Firm To Put Satellite Into Orbit

A Beijing-based rocket developer has become the first private Chinese company to successfully send a satellite into orbit.

I-Space, also known as Beijing Interstellar Glory Space Technology Ltd or StarCraft Glory, launched a rocket carrying two satellites on Thursday, according to Chinese state news agency Xinhua. The successful launch of the Hyperbola-1, or SQX-1 Y1, rocket from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, in northwest China’s Gobi Desert, marked “a new chapter in China’s private commercial aerospace,” the company said in a statement Thursday.

Read more at: CNN

Blue Origin Reportedly Has Just A Few Test Flights To Go Before People Take Space Trips

Blue Origin CEO Bob Smith has told Axios that just a few test flights remain before the space venture founded by Amazon billionaire Jeff Bezos starts putting people on its New Shepard suborbital spaceship.

“We’re still focused on getting the vehicle ready to go fly humans on it, and we’re still pushing to get that done by the end of the year,” Smith was quoted as saying in today’s report.

The first riders are likely to be test subjects selected from Blue Origin’s staff — potentially including former NASA astronauts such as Jeff Ashby and Nicholas Patrick, both of whom appear in a video touting the astronaut experience:

Read more at: Geekwire

We Don’t Need Space Colonies, and We Definitely Don’t Need Jeff Bezos

Billionaire Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos put forward his grand vision for the future of humanity at a convention center ballroom in Washington, DC on May 9. It was certainly ambitious, with declarations that humans need to return to the moon “and stay there” and that his aerospace company Blue Origin was the first step on a path to space colonies in orbit above Earth.

Earth is the best planet, Bezos assured his audience, but building space colonies is the only way to ensure “growth and dynamism” in our future, instead of the “stasis and rationing” that would accompany remaining an Earth-based species.

Read more at: Jacobinmag

New Safer, Inexpensive Way To Propel Small Satellites

 Finding inexpensive solutions for propelling CubeSats is one of the most critical components of the rapidly growing industry of commercial launches of satellites the size of a loaf of bread. The small size and relatively low cost have made CubeSats popular choices for commercial launches in recent years.

The first CubeSat was launched in 1999. Since then, more than 1,000 have been launched. The rapid development and application of nanosatellite technology has vastly accelerated mission complexity – sparking interest in robust, low-power and high-specific impulse micropropulsion systems.

Read more at: Eurekalert

The Secrets of Moondust

There are a few rules for handling pieces of the moon collected by Apollo astronauts. Keep the samples locked in a safe. Don’t blab to everyone that you have some. Don’t destroy them, unless you’ve been given permission; sometimes, in the name of science, the samples must be dissolved in acid. And, most important, don’t sneeze.

“If you sneeze,” says Alex Sehlke, a geologist at NASA, “it’s gone.”

Read more at: Atlantic

Second Laser Boosts Aeolus Power

ESA’s Aeolus satellite, which carries the world’s first space Doppler wind lidar, has been delivering high-quality global measurements of Earth’s wind since it was launched almost a year ago. However, part of the instrument, the laser transmitter, has been slowly losing energy. As a result, ESA decided to switch over to the instrument’s second laser – and the mission is now back on top form.

Developing novel space technology is always a challenge, and despite the multitude of tests that are done in the development and build phases, engineers can never be absolutely certain that it will work in the environment of space.

Aeolus is, without doubt, a pioneering satellite mission – it carries the first instrument of its kind and uses a completely new approach to measuring wind from space.

Read more at: ESA

NASA Is Considering This Inflatable Space Habitat For Its Return To The Moon

Sierra Nevada Corporation is one of the private-sector companies trying to help NASA get people back to the moon.

The company is developing what it calls the “Large Inflatable Fabric Environment ” at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. Sierra Nevada hopes NASA will use the habitat in its new Artemis program, which will lead the U.S. back to the moon and, eventually, Mars.

Sierra Nevada’s habitat is competing with prototypes from Boeing, Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin and Bigelow Aerospace — plus a concept from NanoRacks.

Read more at: CNBC

Toyota, JAXA Ink 3-Yr Pact Over Plan To Send Rover To Moon In 2029

Toyota Motor Corp. and Japan’s space exploration agency said Tuesday they have signed a three-year agreement to jointly research and develop a rover to be sent to the Moon in 2029.

Under the agreement covering the period through March 2022, Toyota and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency will develop, manufacture and test a prototype rover capable of running on the surface of the Moon using fuel cell power.

Toyota and JAXA first unveiled the project in March this year. They said the rover would enable astronauts to live inside it for a certain amount of time without wearing space suits, the first such development in the world.

Read more at: Mainichi

This Oval Office Argument Sums Up NASA’s Dilemma After Apollo

President Donald Trump on Friday welcomed the two living members of the Apollo 11 crew to the White House, where they promptly set to dismantling US space policy.

Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins criticized NASA’s human spaceflight plans in front of the agency’s chief, Jim Bridenstine, in a scene that encapsulates the challenges facing the space program.

Starting with: Where to go next? Many scientists and engineers believe the moon is a target again thanks to the discovery of water ice, which could be a valuable resource, and the relative ease of reaching the Earth’s nearest neighbor. But now, under presidential direction, Mars is being emphasized.

Read more at: QZ

Serrano Supports Astronauts On The Moon, But Not By 2024

Rep. José Serrano (D-NY) today made clear that although he supports the goal of returning astronauts to the Moon, he does not see a need to accelerate NASA’s efforts in order to meet a 2024 deadline.  Calling the White House’s proposal to move up the date arbitrary, he expressed concern that spending the money to get to the Moon sooner would be detrimental to other programs across the government.

On March 26, Vice President Pence directed NASA to put astronauts at the South Pole of the Moon by 2024, the end of a second Trump term if the President is reelected.  NASA was planning to do that in 2028.  The Moon-by-2024 program is now named Artemis.  The Trump Administration submitted a supplemental budget request of $1.6 billion to begin paying for the accelerated program on top of its original FY2020 budget request of $21 billion.

Read more at: Spacepolicy online

Space: Where No Bureaucracy Has Gone Before

The first launch of the Starlink broadband satellite constellation in May marks the beginning of what will soon be a multitrillion-dollar space economy. Following on its heels, NASA recently announced it will permit private companies and tourists to utilize the International Space Station. The space economy is here, and the opportunity is overwhelming: New markets, new systems, and new innovations have the potential to transform civilization, offering greater wealth for society, as well as potential solutions to climate, energy, and resource problems. The promise of the space economy is huge.

Read more at: Washington examiner

France To Launch ‘Fearsome’ Surveillance Satellites To Bolster Space Defences

France plans to launch mini surveillance satellites to enhance the protection and defence of French satellites from 2023, its defence minister said on Thursday, signalling an intensification in the race to militarise space.

Defence Minister Florence Parly said France was not being sucked into an arms race and that the creation of a new French ‘space command’ announced by the president was central to a strategy to bolster defense capabilities, rather than offensive.

“If we want to be able to carry out real military operations in space, then we need to develop the ability to act alone,” Parly said, speaking at the Lyon-Mont Verdun air base.

Read more at: Reuters

Northrop’s Strong Grip On Solid Rocket Motor Market Crippled Boeing In ICBM Competition

Boeing confirmed on Thursday it is bowing out of the Air Force Ground-Based Strategic Deterrent program, an estimated $85 billion effort to replace the Minuteman 3 intercontinental ballistic missile.

The GBSD is the ground-based leg of the nation’s strategic nuclear triad. Boeing was expected to compete head-to-head against Northrop Grumman for the engineering and manufacturing development phase of GBSD. The Air Force on July 16 issued a request for proposals for EMD and five production lot options.

Read more at: Spacenews

India To Carry Out First Space Warfare Exercise

The Indian army will conduct its first simulated space warfare exercise dubbed IndSpaceEx before the end of the week, the Times of India newspaper reported on Wednesday, citing official sources.

“Prime Minister Narendra Modi said the A-Sat test in March was conducted to make India stronger and more secure as well as further peace and harmony. In line with this vision, IndSpaceEx is being conducted to identify key challenges and shortfalls if a conflict escalates to the space dimension,” said a senior official, cited by the newspaper. “A leading IIT [Indian Institute of Technology] has also been engaged to work on the potential has also been engaged to work on the potential solutions,” he added.

Read more at: TASS

Aiming Higher: Airmen Contribute To Human Spaceflight From Apollo To Tomorrow

What’s the first thought or word that comes to your mind when you hear Apollo 11? Is it NASA, moon landing, Armstrong or Aldrin?

While all of those are perfectly logical and correct answers, there’s one response that’s equally as valid, though not often given: U.S. Air Force or Airmen.

From Air Force Col. Nick Hague, who is currently aboard the International Space Station, all the way back to Buzz Aldrin, who was a U.S. Air Force fighter pilot in the Korean War, Airmen are among the more than 60% of astronauts who came from the uniformed service.

Read more at: AFSPC

Legendary NASA Flight Director Chris Kraft Has Died At 95

Christopher C. Kraft Jr. — NASA’s first flight director and a legendary scientist who helped build the nation’s space program — died Monday, just two days after the world celebrated the historic Apollo 11 walk on the moon. He was 95.

Read more at: Houston chronicle

Insurance In Space – The Final Frontier

This year marks the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing, representing a significant turning point for mankind, as we took our “giant leap” into the space age. Since then, space travel has continued to increase in regularity, with more than 300 journeys launched, sending more than 500 people outside of the boundaries of our planet.

At that time in 1969, Neil Armstrong estimated that the Apollo 11 landing mission only had a 50% chance of a successful landing, as the Saturn V rocket left the Kennedy Space Center with thousands of litres of kerosene and over a million litres of liquid oxygen on board.

Read more at: Insurance businessmag

The Outdated Language of Space Travel

Half a century ago, there was only one kind of astronaut in the United States. Men launched atop rockets to space. Men maneuvered landers down to the surface of the moon. Men guided spacecraft safely home. From start to finish, they were at the controls. So it makes sense that the effort to send people to orbit and beyond was called “manned” spaceflight.

But when Peggy Whitson hears someone call the spaceflight program “manned” today, she can’t stifle her physical reaction.

“I cringe a little bit,” Whitson says.

Read more at: Atlantic

Film Review: ‘Astronaut’

The recently widowed retiree Angus (Richard Dreyfuss) might be in the gutter, but he looks at the stars. Indeed, despite his flailing health and tricky family situation, the hopeful septuagenarian lives by that famous Oscar Wilde quote in “Astronaut,” actress-turned-filmmaker Shelagh McLeod’s caringly observed debut feature. It’s a modestly scoped, visually amateurish film, but limited resources don’t stop McLeod from reaching for galactic emotions with the story of a fantasist chasing his lifelong dream of becoming an astronaut. In the end, only a fraction of McLeod’s ambitions sticks a landing. But “Astronaut” stays afloat with sweetness, thanks to a measured performance from Dreyfuss.

Read more at: Variety

Vintage Photos Show Clear Lake 50 Years Ago, When NASA First Put A Man On The Moon

Fifty years ago Wednesday, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) officially completed one of the most iconic missions in space exploration when the Apollo 11 crew returned to Earth after walking on the moon.

Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Mike Collins splashed down at 11:51 a.m. Houston time July 24, 1969 in the Pacific Ocean.

The men would then spend the next 18 days in quarantine at the Manned Spacecraft Center, later renamed the Johnson Space Center in Clear Lake.

Read more at: Chron

An Post Apologises For Spelling Error On Moon Stamps

An Post has been forced to apologise for a spelling error that appeared on its new commemorative stamps celebrating the 50th anniversary of the Moon landings.

The series of stamps, which featured four NASA astronauts with Irish ancestry, saw the Irish word for moon, ‘gealach’, accidentally replaced with ‘gaelach’, meaning Irish.

The mix-up resulted in the sentence “50th Anniversary of the First Landing on the Irish” appearing on the stamps.

Read more at: RTE

The Rarest Of Roles Among The Engineers And Rocket Scientists: Space Ethics Advisor

Jacques Arnauld was once a Catholic priest. Earlier, he was a forestry researcher who studied the possible consequences of acid rain in Switzerland. He did two PhDs and specialized in Darwinism and Creationism. These pursuits changed when he helped write a report on the ethics of space exploration for the Centre National d’Études Spatiales, France’s space agency. In 2001, after the director received the report, he created a novel position for Arnould: ethics advisor.

“You are not to wait for what is written for you,” says Arnould, who has held the title ever since. “Our ancestors tried to read our destiny in the stars, but today, we have to build our destiny in the stars. And it’s my story.”

Read more at: National post